Tuesday, March 4, 2014

The classification and description of speech sound I  Consonants of English

 Speech sounds are very broadly divided into two categories: Vowels & Consonants.
When we produce some sounds, air escapes through the mouth with friction and these sounds are called ‘consonants.

Any consonants can be described by three ways.
  1. According to the position of glottis they are considered whether they are voiced or voiceless.  
  2. According to the stricture involved in articulation, Plosive, affricate, nasal, fricative, etc. are labels given to consonants.
  3. According to their places of articulation. Consonants can be described as Bilabial, Velar, Alveolar, Post-Alveolar, Labio-dental, Dental, Palato, Palatal, Glottal
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Tuesday, June 25, 2013

The Prose Writer

The British impact on India has given rise to an impressive mass of writing in English could be conveniently described as ‘Indo-English literature’. In this sphere, Indian prose writing in English however, came rather earlier than writing in verse, and the prose writers though not necessary known to fame, they far more numerous than the poets. 
 However the three masters of prose were famous in the modern period. First was the Radhakrishnan, the philosopher with an international reputation. Second was Nirad Chaudhary who became a master in prose style after his ‘The autobiography of Unknown Indian’. Third was N. Raghanathan as great essayist. But our attention would be on to Dr. Radhakrishanan and Nirad Chaudhary. Let’s discuss about them in detailed.
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Novelists: Mulk Raj Anand, R.K. Narayan, Manohar Malgonkar and Kamala Markandeya

Indian Renaissance  Novelists: Mulk Raj Anand, R.K. Narayan, Manohar Malgonkar and Kamala Markandeya

There are many novelists in Indian English writing, but a few of them have taken very seriously the art of writing in terms of their talent we can think of Mulk Raj Anand and R.K. Narayan. They remained stuck to the course of creative writing. It was not a by product for them. before independence and after it, there came other novelists who took the form on their should and carried to a higher level. There we shave have to remember Manohar Malgonkar and Kamala Markandeya.
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Indian Renaissance The novel: Themes, Background, Types

Indian Renaissance The novel: Themes, Background, Types
            The ‘novel’ is novel to India. We had other form very rich but there was no novel. No doubt ‘Kadambari’ by Bana and ‘Vasavaduatt’ Subandhu are often referred but there are not fit. It is in 19th century and especially the western influence brought this form. In the beginning translation came. Classics were adapted and abridged but that gave way to original Indian novels. India being a large subcontinent, many languages are there and so many regional novels came.
(A) Pioneers: Bengali Novelist: Bankim-Taogre-Sarat:-
Indian Renaissance in Bengali Renaissance. Later on it spread all over, it is but natural that Bengali writers led the way. First novel was traced in 1858, which was ‘Alaler Gharer Dulal’. But with the coming of Bankim Chandra Chattergee the novel made the mark. His first effort ‘Rajmohan’s Wife’ become first Indian novel in English. Other Bengali novels came out and were translated into English. They are: ‘Durgeshnandini, ‘Kopalkundala’, ‘Vishavriksha’, ‘Krishnakantar Uyil’, ‘Anandmath’ and ‘Devi Choudhuani’. Toru Dutt’s ‘Biance’, Raj Lakshmi Devi’s ‘The Hindu Wife’ etc. appeared too.

Indian Renaissance Gandhi Literature

Indian Renaissance Gandhi Literature
            M.K. Gandhi was a gigantic man. ‘He was an organization. For India he is an ‘avatar’
            “He was no doubt primarily a man of God, but he was also a practical man who was more keen on doing the right things under all conceivable circumstances than in making an exhibition of tight-rope dancing in the interest of theoretical consistency.”
            Whatever he did was experiments with truth which he thought as God. There are lots of things which stand as values of life. He was a humanist, a man of religion and a nationalist and patriot. In Africa or in India, he had struggles with the Whites or the English yet there was not enmity against them. He learnt English and studied law. He was a pure Indian. Simplicity was a marked quality which is found not only in his life but also in writing. He had faith in men that lead to hatred of machines. Inequality in class and trade were horrible and separated a man from the society. His aim was ‘Sarvodaya’. Gandhi remained a pioneer in social changes. He turned a leader and as the leader he immensely influenced Indians, Indians, African and the whole world. His life and deeds can’t be described in short span.