Saturday, May 18, 2013

The Descent of the English Language

The Descent of the English Language
¬  Introduction:-
Þ          There are plenty of languages over world. The modern linguistics research has show that languages can be grouped in families. Pronounciation, grammar and vocabulary of a language are traced to the other. There are several families but we shall limit ourselves to Indo-European family as English is one of them.
Þ          The name of the family is Indo-European one. Aryan and ‘Indo-Germanic” names are there. Nearly 3500 years ago romantic tribes round the Black-sea and Siberia used to speak it. These tribes dispersed across the sub continent. Isolation of a tribe gave rise to addition and omission. Change in the main language by the 200 B.C. This language split into eight distinct language groups and this process of splitting continued. (See Diagram).

¬  Common things in Indo-European languages:-
Þ             There are some words, which indicate. Similarity of the languages of this family. Ancient languages were more complex than the present day languages. Amongst most contemporary language spoken today is of natives of Australia. Some pronouns like ‘my’, ‘you’, and some relationship nouns such as ‘father’, mother’ brother’ prove the argument but surprising distant relationship like aunt, uncle, cousin, don’t correspond in the same manner. Surprisingly cardinal numbers from one to ten have considerable similarly. The names of numbers in various languages like French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese closely resemble the Latin and they are clearly derived from. Henry Bett in his book ‘Wandering Among words(1936)’ shows that ‘five’ is the same word as ‘hand’ in Labrador and Roman ‘V’ while both are related to counting of fingers. To add one ‘I’ indicating one finger or two and so on is done to ‘V’. Children and uneducated people do counting with the fingers. To do it simple pebbles were used. Latin word for ‘pebbles’ is calculate’. So our verb ‘calculate’ has come into existence and now a days into come to point. One of the higher and more complex process of mathematics.

¬  Primitive Germanic Group:-
Þ          Out of eight groups of Indo-European family, we shall consider primitive Germanic grows as it has the root English Language. 2000 year before in the most parts of central and northern Europe the language was spoken. On geographical basis it was breaking up into several different dialects. Constant shift was main aspect. Italic group is very important. Its sound system remained intact. Its influence is seen on Germanic group. Jacob Grimm found out following.
            Latin words               Changed into                         Germanic
            P= Pedem                    F= fot                                      =foot
            T= tres                         O=ori                                       = three
            D =decem                   T=tien                                      =ten
            C=Chine                      S=sheot                                   =sheet
Þ          If we notice these sound, they has been changed with slight change of lips. They seem trivial but effect is very much. It depends on the use of vocal, but lip constant or vice-versa.
Þ          These chances were explained by Grimm. SO it was known as Grimm’s Law. It did not answer all the questions. Verner improved it son later on it was known as Verner’s Law.
Þ          Primitive Germanic fell into three groups’ Gothic, Scandinavian and West Germanic. We have Gothic writing records. Scandinavian group has given us four languages. West Germanic gave us; High German, law German and Anglo Saxon language. From the last one we have middle and the modern English.
Þ          West Germanic is theoretical language. We have no written no writer documents. ‘R’ is added, or placed instead of‘s’ or ‘z’ in a word e.g. ‘Was’ is turned ‘were’ and is into ‘are’.