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Tuesday, May 28, 2013

The Description and classification of speech of sound II Vowels


The Description and classification of speech of sound II Vowels
Q: 1 Description and classification of speech sounds II vowels.
Q: 1 Describe the vowels according to the part of tongue, height of tongue and lip positions.
¬  Introduction:-
Þ          Variety is always welcome. It is interesting. This could be applied to speech sounds as well. Each speech sound is different to the other. Basically we have two categories: Vowels & Consonants.
Þ  Consonants: There are some sounds when we produce them air escapes through the mouth with friction. Friction is there.
Þ    Vowels: Some words while produced don’t make any friction. They come out freely. These are known as ‘vowels’. Thus
§  Vowels don’t make any friction.
§  The lung air comes out the mouth without disturbance.
§  Gap between active and passive articulation is sufficient gap.
§  The position of tongue is very open. And it is active articulator.
§  The upper part of the tongue, hard and soft palate and the roof remain passive.
§  We have three criteria for the description and classification of vowels. They are:
1.      The part of the tongue raised during its articulation
(Front, central, back);
2.      The height to which it is raised
(close, half-close, half-open, and open);
3.      The position of the lips (unrounded and rounded)
            Following Figure show various tongue and mouth position. It gives us idea how much the mouth opens and how much the tongue goes up.

Þ    According to parts of tongue, the following vowels are:
1. Front vowels. 2. Back Vowels. 3. Center Vowels.

1. Front vowels:-
            “Front vowels are those during the articulation of which the front of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate.”
Þ    It should be remembered however that the space between the front of the tongue and the hard palate should be sufficient for the air to escape without any friction.
Þ    The vowels in words bee, bid, bed, bad  are some examples of front vowels.

2. Back vowels:-
            “Back vowels are those during the articulation of which the front of the tongue is raised in the direction of the soft palate.”
Þ    It should be remembered however that the space between the front of the tongue and the soft palate should be sufficient for the air to escape without any friction.
Þ    The vowels in words cart , cot , cought , push , and pool   are some examples of front vowels.

3. Centre vowels:-
            “Vowels are those during the articulation of which the center of the tongue is raised in the direction of the roof of the mouth where hard palate and soft palate meet are called central vowels.”
Þ    The vowels in words cup and heard are some examples of front vowels.
Þ    According to the height of the tongue the following vowels: 1. close vowels, 2. Open vowel, 3. half close,  4. half open.


1. Close vowels:-
            “Vowels are those during the articulation the tongue is very close to the roof of the mouth.”
Þ    The tongue moves towards the roof. It shows how much the tongue goes up according to the articulation of a sound. It also moves down. If it is up, it is known close vowels.
Þ    If we pronounce /i:/ sound the tongue goes up to close-position. So it is close vowel.

2. Open vowels:-
            “Vowels are those during the articulation the tongue is very far away from the  roof of the mouth.”
Þ    Front tongue is raised but it is very far away from the hard palate. It is extreme to the close position. Some sounds are spoken in this position so they are open vowels.
Þ    /æ/ is such a vowel.

3. Half- close:-
            “Vowels are those during the articulation the tongue is raised to a point between the close and open positions but closer to close than to open.”
Þ    The tongue is raised but doesn’t go up to the close position. It is below close, so this is half close positions.
Þ    The vowel /i/ is like this.

4. Half- open :-
            “Vowels are those during the articulation the tongue is raised to a point between the close and open positions but closer to open than to close.”
Þ    The tongue is below half close position. The tongue is raised but it does not go very much upside. It is neither open position.
Þ    The vowel /e/ is like this.

Þ    According to lip positions the following types of vowels occur: -
  1. Unrounded: Lips also show movements. While we speak some sound lips are spread or remain neutral. Vowels in the Words Sea, sit, set, sat are unrounded vowels.
  2. Rounded vowels: During the articulation of some vowels lips are rounded so they are know as rounded vowels. Vowels in the words like cot, caught, put and fool.

Thus any vowels can be described by three way, indicating tongue part, tongue height and lip position. The following diagram shows the position of vowels.
These 12 are pure vowels. They are known as monopthongs. Except three central vowels and front close /i:/ other 8 are known as cardinal vowels. They don’t show their positions.
There are some vowels going to another vowel .Their moving is known as glide. From one position they glide to another position. They are diphthongs. See, sit bet etc have one vowel and no glide but in the following words vowel glide is noticed. Buy, boy, cow, poor, etc . There are eight diptholongs. When we describe any vowel all such thing should be kept in mind.
A Back Half Close Rounded Vowel would mean the following.
  1. the back is raised in the direction of the soft palate during the articulation;
  2. it is raised to a point between close and open position but very closer to close than to open;
  3. The lips are rounded during its articulation.